I have Libreoffice 188.8.131.52 installed on a windows 10 x64 machine and navigating through cells is not possible.
On hitting one arrow key the whole spreadsheet moves instead that only the highlighted cell moves.
On a Windows 7 x64 machine everything works fine.
I tried to reinstall this version but the failure did not leave.
Have you tried to toggle with the 'Scroll Lock - key'. It has similar function as you describe.
I installed 184.108.40.206 and with this version it works fine.
But you are right, enabling Scroll Lock keys describe exact the behaviour and i think this was the culprit.