Currently the wildcards are available in Functions and in Find & Replace, but not in Standard and Advanced filters.
Steps to Reproduce:
Add the option in Standard and Advanced filters to use also 'Wildcars'
User Profile Reset: No
Note that ODF defines a <table:filter-condition> table:operator attribute with values 'match' and '!match' that use regular expressions, but does not define anything for wildcards, so this would need an ODF extension.
Does Excel handle wildcards in its filters?
It comes from a question in Ask https://ask.libreoffice.org/en/question/173567/libreoffice-calc-wildcard-advanced-filter/, I have not excel for test. But looks it does https://support.office.com/en-us/article/filter-by-using-advanced-criteria-4c9222fe-8529-4cd7-a898-3f16abdff32b
In any case seems a hard task to do, so if you are agree can be closed as wontfix.
Why close? It's a valid request.
Of course can be valid, perhaps I misunderstood your comment.